本文仅供参考,切不可当成野生蘑菇鉴别的唯一依据。以下描述中,文字在上,图片在下。

为了安全起见,如果之前没吃过,第一次尝试的蘑菇,一定要煮透了才能吃,而且少量。

千万不要尝试无法百分百鉴别的蘑菇。

1.Apricot Jelly Mushroom(Guepinia Helvelloides)

焰耳属是一种真菌,近于有柄至有柄有盖;菌盖扩展呈扇形、匙形至近漏斗形。别名胶勺 分类地位木耳目、银耳科、焰耳属 形态特征子实体一般较小,胶质,匙形或近漏斗状,柄部半开裂呈管状,高3~8cm,宽 2~6cm,浅土红色或橙褐红色,内侧表面被白色粉末,子实层面近平滑,或有皱或近似纲纹状,盖缘卷曲或后期呈波状。产于春天,夏天和秋天,雨后的针叶林里。

口感佳,没有异味,煮熟后吃。

apricot jelly mushroom 1

 Bear's head tooth mushroom

猴头菇

子实体宽10-30厘米, 白色,日久会慢慢变黄。

真菌分支,厚菌柄部附着于树干上。
菌刺密集下垂,覆盖整个子实体

出现在夏末和秋季。

生长在硬木和针叶树原木。

坚果的口感,气味淳和,煮熟后吃。 

bears head tooth mushroom

Beefsteak fungus

牛排菌(fistulina hepatica),又名牛舌菌、猪肝菌、猪舌菌,担子菌亚门、层菌纲、非褶菌目、牛排菌科、牛排菌属,日本称肝脏绒、鲜血绒。由于其状如牛舌和动物的肝脏以及新鲜时色如鲜血而得名。

子实体中等大。肉质,有柄,软而多汁,半圆形,钥匙形或舌形,菌盖粘,有辐射状条纹及短毛,宽9-10cm。菌内厚,剖开可见条纹。管口土黄色,后变为褐色。

可高达30厘米宽,橙红色肝红色

肉滋润,挤压时渗出淡红色汁液。

菌肉下面多孔,密集细管装排布,呈青紫偏红。

茎橙色或肝红,横向连接子实体。

单个或数个并存长活橡树,或硬木树桩上。

出现在夏天和秋天。

果肉具有酸味,气味温和,需煮熟。

警告:老的牛排菌的汁液可导致胃部不适。 隔夜浸泡有助于消除汁液。

beefsteak fungus2


Black morel(羊肚菌)

(学名:Morchella vulgaris),又名草笠竹,是一种珍贵的食用菌和药用菌。其上部呈褶皱网状,既像个蜂巢,也像个羊肚,因而得名。

帽宽8厘米,内部中空,表面蜂窝状黑色组成/棕色脊和深褐色坑,随着年龄增长变暗。

干为白色,光滑,不规则,空心。

单长或聚生在地面上,通常靠近松柏。

出现在早春。

口感佳,气味温温和, 需煮熟吃。

警告:如果和酒一同食用耗可能导致中毒。不要用混淆假羊肚菌 ,假羊肚菌内部不是空心的。

Black morel

 

Blue chanterelle

乌鸡油菌(学名Polyozellus multiplex),又名乌茸菌或乌舞茸,是一种革菌科真菌。它们是单型的,即属内只有它们一个物种。它的孢子台形状独特,蓝紫色的伞状帽像是一束束的,底部皱褶至蕈柄。乌鸡油菌的分类曾有多次改动,不论是在科或属的层级。它们的生长地包括北美洲及东亚的温带针叶林。它们是可食用菌,现今也有栽种作商业用途。乌鸡油菌内含生物活性的polyozellin,可以用来抑制胃癌。c

caps are up to 10cm wide, flat, smooth, dark purple to blue/black with incurved edges.
fruiting body is funnel-shaped.
outside of the mushroom is pale violet with small ridges running down almost to the base.
flesh is thick, soft, blue to black.
stems are fused together.
appears in sumer and fall.
grows in large, dense clusters under conifers such as spruce and fir.
taste is mild and pleasant, with an indistinct odor; cook before eating.

Polyozellus multiplexmgw 04

 

Chicken of the woods(硫磺菌)

硫磺菌又名硫磺多孔菌、硫色多孔菌,是菌类的一种。初期瘤状,似脑髓状,菌盖覆瓦状排列,肉质多汗干后轻而脆。菌盖宽8-30cm,厚1-2cm,表面硫磺色至鲜橙色,有细绒或无,有皱纹,无环带,边缘薄而锐,波浪状至瓣裂。菌肉白色或浅黄色,管孔而硫磺色,干后褪色,孔口多角形,平均每毫米3-4个。孢子卵形,近球形,光滑、无色、4.5-7×4-5μm,此菌的重要特征是子实体瓦状排列,硫磺色。幼时可食用,味道较好,也可药用。

fruiting bodies are up to 20cm wide, shelf-like, rubbery, sulphur yellow to orange, sometimes with bright orange tips.

older specimens become pale and brittle, chalk-like.

flesh is white to yellow tinted, firm, softer towards the edges.

underside is characteristically white to bright yellow, with tiny pores instead of gills.

has no stem.

grows in overlapping groups on logs, stumps, or wounds of trees.

appears in spring, summer, and fall.

has a mild taste and odor; cook before eating.

an inedible (but not poisonous) look-alike is Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, which is corky/rigid rather than rubbery, and orange/red on the top and underside, rather than bright yellow on the underside.

an inedible (but not poisonous) look-alike is Hapalopilus nidulans, which is cinnamon brown/orange on the top and the underside, rather than bright yellow on the underside.

tip: harvest the soft outer margin of the younger specimens to avoid bitterness.

warning: can cause allergic reaction in some people due to toxins absorbed from the tree; begin by sampling small amounts.

Chicken Of The Woods

 

To be continuted:
comb tooth mushroom
common puffball
fairy ring mushroom
giant puffball

Golden chanterelle (aka chanterelle)

鸡油菌为真菌界鸡油菌目。子实体肉质,喇叭形,杏黄色至蛋黄色,菌盖宽3—9 厘米,最出扁平,后下凹。菌肉蛋黄色,味美。鸡油菌含有丰富的胡萝卜素、维生素c 、蛋白质、钙、磷、铁等营养成分。性味甘、寒。具有清目、利肺、益肠胃的功效。常食此菌可预防视力下降、眼炎、皮肤干燥等病。鸡油菌是世界著名的四大名菌之一,有时也叫杏菌、杏黄菌或黄丝菌。

鸡油菌在烹制时菇体很吸油,吃的时候一口咬下去,和了蘑菇液汁的油水被挤压流出来,如鸡油一般, 故此得名。成熟的鸡油菌有点喇叭花的样子,颜色很鲜艳,比一般的蘑菇要韧,有点弹性, 闻起来有明显的杏香味。鸡油菌有好几个种类,最正宗的是叫做cibarius的品种。
鸡油菌通常在秋天生长于北温带深林内,东欧和俄罗斯出产世界上最好的鸡油菌。中国部分地区也出产几个品种的鸡油菌,其中以四川及湖北西北地区的质量较好,但产量不大。
鸡油菌在德国非常有名,它和著名的德国香肠一样受人喜爱,但价格要贵很多。鸡油菌的味道特别之处在于那种典型的杏香味,这种味道是任何种类的食物所没有的。吃鸡油菌的方法有多种花样,最为特别的可能要算奶油香草鸡油菌。 崇尚美食的法兰西人认为把鸡油菌与香草、奶油一起烹食会将鸡油菌的特别香味发挥到极致。把鸡油菌用白醋渍了加进一些香草也是欧洲常见的吃法。中国人吃鸡油菌的方法主要是煲汤或者作为配菜炒肉,炖得久一些,那种特别的味道就会出来,鸡油菌炒火腿是一道名菜。鸡油菌性寒,吃鲜菌最好用开水焯两三分钟,放凉再用较好。无论是新鲜的还是干的,鸡油菌的香气都很明显。

cap is up to 15cm wide, depressed in the center, smooth, dry, uniform egg-yolk yellow.

mature specimen is funnel shaped, immature specimens should be avoided.

forking ridges (rib-like folds) are present rather than gills; they descend onto the stem.

flesh is firm, yellowish, does does not change color when bruised.

stem is solid, orange tinted, tapering slightly to the base.

grows solitary or in groups on the ground, but not clustered at base of trees, and never on wood.

appears in the summer and fall.

has a pleasant, mild taste and mild, fruity odor; cook before eating.

an edible look-alike is the Smooth chanterelle (Cantharallus lateritis), which is similar in appearance but grows under oaks, has a pinkish hue and reduced ridges.

warning: do not confuse with the poisonous False Chantarelle (Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca), has gills rather than ridges, often grown on decaying wood, tastes foul and causes stomach upset.

warning: do not confuse with the poisonous Jack-O'Lantern Fungus (Omphalotus illudens), which grows in large clusters on roots, stumps, or at the base of trees and has an unpleasantly sweet odor.

Chanterelle Cantharellus cibarius

 

hedgehog mushroom
hen of the woods
hexagonal-pored polypore

Horse mushroom,野蘑菇(学名:Agaricus arvensis),俗称马蘑菇(horse mushroom),是一种担子菌门真菌,隶属于伞菌属。这种真菌非常美味,呈白色,且与四孢蘑菇极相似。

野蘑菇最早是由美国真菌学家雅各·克里斯琴·谢弗于1762年描述的,其学名即为现今的学名。其学名中的“arvensis”源自拉丁文,意思是“野外的”,代表这种真菌广泛地分布在野外。野蘑菇的菌盖直径长8–20厘米,呈白色,但随着年龄增加或在碰伤时会变成黄白色。呈卵圆状,随着年龄增加会变成凸面状。其菌柄高8–10厘米,厚2–3厘米,与菌盖的颜色相同,且—有着一个形状类似于钝齿轮,由双层膜组成的菌环。其菌褶起初呈白色,随着年龄增加会变成粉红色,最终会变成褐色。其子实层是自由下垂的。其菌肉呈白色,在碰伤或切割后会变成黄白色,并有着近似茴香的气味。其孢子印呈褐色或黑褐色。其担孢子的大小为11–26 x 9–18微米。
野蘑菇广泛地分布于北美洲、欧洲和西亚。这种真菌经常在马厩、草地等地方以仙环的方式出现,并会依附着云杉生长。这种真菌通常在秋季期间出现,且有时候被发现与荨麻一起生长。
野蘑菇是一种非常美味的蘑菇。这种真菌已被世界各地的人视为美食长达多个世纪,且现今仍然是常用的食材。但是,这种真菌和很多其他蘑菇的子实体都会生物累积重金属,如镉和铜。

cap up to 20cm wide, convex, smooth, dry, white to creamy, with NO hint of orange.

older specimens have a planar cap with light brown scales in center.

flesh is white or cream, firm.

gills are crowded, free from the stem, progressing from pink-tinged white to dark brown/black with age.

stem is smooth, dry, equal or thickening towards the base, unchanged when bruised. No yellow staining at the base of the stem when cut ot bruised.

in young specimens, the underside of the partial veil bears a characteristic cogwheel-like pattern.

in older specimens, the double veil progresses to a skirt-like tissue/ring around the stem.

grows in grassy areas, meadows and fields.

appears in late sumer or fall.

taste is mild, with a light licorice/anise odor; cook before eating.

an edible look-alike is Agaricus silvicoa, which is practically indistinguishable in the field.

warning: do not confuse with the poisonous Agaricus xanthodermis, which is similar in appearance but has a stem that buises yellow at the base when cut or bruised.

warning: only collect younger specimens that still have the characteristic cogwheel pattern on the unbroken veil; older specimens could be confused with poisonous look-alikes.

horse mushroom4

Indigo milk cap

蓝绿乳菇(学名:Lactarius indigo),又名靛蓝乳菇,是红菇科下的一种真菌。它们广泛分布在北美洲东部、东亚及中美洲。它们生长在落叶林及针叶林内,在多种树上长出菌根。子实体呈深蓝色至淡蓝灰色。当其组织破损时会流出乳汁。浮汁呈靛蓝色,当暴露在空气下会逐渐变成绿色。菌盖阔5-15厘米,蕈柄高2-8厘米及厚1-2.5厘米。它们是可以食用的,在墨西哥、危地马拉及中国都有出售。
蓝绿乳菇的菌根藏于地下。在适合的气温、湿度及养份供应下,就会长出繁殖结构的子实体。菌盖直径5-15厘米,初期菌盖是突出的,继而中央凹陷,随着年龄凹陷得越多。初期菌盖边向内卷曲,成熟时就不再卷曲,反而向上升。菌盖表面呈靛蓝色,逐渐变成淡灰蓝色或银蓝色,有时有绿色疙瘩。菌盖是有环的,有淡色及深色的区域,有时也有深蓝色斑点。初长的菌盖有黏性的触感。

菌盖向内卷曲的边缘。
菌随呈淡白色至蓝色,当暴露在空气中时会慢慢变为绿色。味道淡至辛辣。菌肉易脆,蕈柄屈曲时可以发出清脆的声音。受损的组织会流出乳汁,乳汁是靛蓝色,同样暴露在空气下会变成绿色。乳汁像蕈柄般味道淡淡。蓝绿乳菇的乳汁量不及其他乳菇属,越老的菌就会越干。

菌褶是连生的或轻微向下延生,且是紧密生长的。菌褶也是靛蓝色的,逐渐会变得淡色,受损时会有绿染色。蕈柄高2-6厘米及厚1-2.5厘米,呈圆柱体,基部有时较窄。蕈柄呈靛蓝色至银蓝色或灰蓝色。柄初期是实心的,后来会变得空心。蕈柄初期像菌盖般触感黏性,随着渐长而变得干身。蕈柄一般位于中央,有时会稍为偏离。子实体没有明显气味。

蓝绿乳菇有较细小的变种,名为Lactarius indigo var. diminutivus,其菌盖直径为3-7厘米,蕈柄长1.5-4厘米及厚0.3-1厘米。[15]它们分布在维吉尼亚州,而最初的标本是在德克萨斯州的布拉佐里亚县发现。

蓝绿乳菇的孢子呈奶白色至黄色。在显微镜下,孢子是透明的,呈椭圆形至接近球状,有淀粉质的结节,大小为7-9×5.5-7.5微米。扫描电子显微镜下可见孢子表面呈网状。子实层有多种的细胞,可以透过分辨这些细胞来确定物种。孢子台是含有4孢子的,最厚的位置长37-45微米,阔8-10微米。囊状体是菌丝的末端细胞,负责协助孢子的扩散及维持孢子周边的湿度。侧生囊状体呈轴状,大小为40-56×6.4-8微米,顶端狭窄。菌褶边缘有大量的褶缘囊状体,大小约为40–45.6×5.6–7.2微米。

虽然蓝绿乳菇是可食用的,但就其味道却有不同的意见。例如美国真菌学家David Arora认为它们的味道超卓,但堪萨斯州的指引却将它们的味道评为平庸。蓝绿乳菇是稍苦、或辛辣,质感粗糙。由于肉质爽脆,故可以将它们切成薄片。当煮食时其蓝色会消失,并变为灰色。由于肉质粗糙,所以并不适合风干。含有丰富乳汁的可以在腌泡汁中加入颜色。

在墨西哥,于6月至11月有出售采集回来的野生蓝绿乳菇。当地认为蓝绿乳菇是“二级”美味。在危地马拉于5月至10月也有出售蓝绿乳菇。蓝绿乳菇是中国云南售卖的13种乳菇属之一。

cap is blue, up to 15cm wide, convex with an inrolled margin.

older specimens are greyish-blue with a depression in the cap.

flesh is indigo colored, staining green.

cutting across the gills releases a dark indigo latex which turns green.

gills are light blue and descend shortly down the stem.

stem is indigo/blue and hollow.

grows under conifer and hardwood stands.

appears in late sumer or fall.

taste is mildly bitter or neutral, with no odor; cook before eating.

edible lookalike is Lactarius paradoxus, which has lightly orange gills which release a red latex when cut.

indigo milke cap

 

Ink cap

墨汁鬼伞(学名Coprinopsis atramentaria,昔称Coprinus atramentarius),又名鬼盖、鬼伞、鬼屋、鬼菌或朝生地盖,以往为分类在鬼伞属下,是继鸡腿菇后第二著名的墨汁伞。它的种名是由拉丁文的“墨汁”而来。
它是广泛分布的真菌,当与酒一起食用是会有毒的。当采摘墨汁鬼伞时,它会释放出黑色的液体,这些液体曾一度被用作墨汁的代替品。
灰色或褐色的菌盖在开端是呈钟的形状,在底部散开。菌褶开始时是白色,但很快会转为黑色,且很快消散。菌柄短小及呈灰色。
墨汁鬼伞是丛生的。一般生在木上,在秋天可以于草原、草地及广阔的地方找到。主要生长在北半球,而在澳洲亦可以找到。
墨汁鬼伞与酒一起食用时是有毒的。症状包括有面红、反胃、呕吐及心跳紊乱,于食用后20分钟至2小时会出现。墨汁鬼伞有着鬼伞素,会阻碍乙醛脱氢酶的运作,使乙醛积聚在体内。乙醛是乙醇的代谢物,是造成宿醉大部分症状的物质。虽然有不适的症状,但却从未有致命的情况出现。这些症状在吃了墨汁鬼伞3天后喝酒亦有可能会出现。

cap is conic to bell-shaped with age, up to 8cm wide, light gray or gray-brown with furrow-lines radiating to the margins.

gills are nearly free from the stem and white/grey when young.

the flesh and gills of older specimens liquefies into a black inky mass.

partial veil leaves an inferior, fibrous ring on the white stem.

grows in tight clusters in grass or on wood debris.

appears in sumer and fall.

has a mild taste with no odor; cook before eating.

tip: collect younger specimens and/or remove blackening areas which have a more bitter taste.

tip: cooking with water shortly after collecting helps to prevent the dish from turning into a black inky mess.

warning: causes a toxic reaction of hot flushing and nausea if consumed with or followed by alcohol.

ink cap

Jelly ear (aka wood ear)又叫犹太人的耳朵(Jew's ear),传说中的黑木耳。

黑木耳(学名:Auricularia auricula-judae),又称云耳、木耳、木檽、光木耳、木蕊、木菌、树鸡,是木耳科木耳属一种食用菌。

黑木耳子实体通常是3至8厘米(1.2至3.1英寸)长,也可以是多达12厘米(4.7英寸).它的独特形状通常是让人联想到软耳朵,虽然子实体也可以是杯状。它通常横向附着在基板上,和有时带有一个非常短的柄。该品种在新鲜的时候具有坚韧,胶质,弹性质感,但它在变干的时候是硬而脆。褐色子实体略呈耳形,湿润时半透明,干燥时为革质。

黑木耳生长在落叶乔木和灌木的木材上,尤其是在老木材上。在高达90%的情况下,蘑菇被发现在老木材成长,但它往往是不正确的被假设专门在老木材上成长。

中国是木耳的主要生产国,产区主要分布在广西、云南、贵州、四川、湖北、黑龙江等地,其中黑龙江省东宁县绥阳镇是中国最大的黑木耳基地。亚洲部分国家和地区也有生产。

生于枯死的树干上,也可以用阔叶树类的段木和木屑人工栽培;生长需散光、湿润和温暖。

黑木耳可以全年被发现,但最常见于秋季。它广泛分布于世界各地的温带和亚热带地区,并且可以在欧洲,北美,亚洲,澳洲,南美洲和非洲被发现。

fruiting body is is up to 15cm wide, ear-shaped, rubbery, orange-brown to muddy red/brown.
upper surface is smooth, possibly with ribbing on the underside.
flesh dries tough and hard.
grows in groups on conifers and logs, sometimes including hardwoods.
appears in early spring, sumer and fall.
flavour is mild with no odor; cook before eatin

jelly ear


King bolete (aka cepe)

美味牛肝菌(学名:Boletus edulis)是一种可食用的蘑菇,也称大腿蘑、网纹牛肝菌,属于真菌类。

美味牛肝菌的子实体为肉质,伞盖褐色,直径最大可达25厘米,1千克重,菌盖厚,下面有许多小孔,类似牛肝,可生食,也可制成干制品。

美味牛肝菌生长在林间空地上,性喜温暖潮湿,子实体粗壮肉厚,结实细嫩,营养丰富,味道鲜美与树根一起形成菌根,产于北半球温带地区,在中国主要产于四川、云南等地,其他各地森林地区也有出产。

另外有几种牛肝菌也可以食用,常和美味牛肝菌混淆:

黑牛肝菌(Boletus aereus)
褐红牛肝菌(Boletus pinophilus),也叫松蘑,尤其多生长在松树林中,有松脂清香味。
网柄牛肝菌(Boletus reticulatus)
美味牛肝菌有时容易和有毒的苦粉孢牛肝菌(Tylopilus felleus)混淆,苦粉孢牛肝菌的菌肉是白色的,味苦。此外还容易和也可以食用的褐圆孔牛肝菌(Gyroporus castaneus'')混淆,后者一般较小。

cap is up to 35cm wide, convex, reddish to yellowish brown, smooth but often uneven.

underside of cap consists of pores, off-white to olive in age, with no pink tinge.

flesh is white; flesh and pores unchanging when bruised.

stem is white or tinted yellow/brown with a characteristic fine, white network extending down from the top of the stem, variable in shape.

partial veil absent.

grows singly or as many in conifer and hardwood stands.

appears in spring, summer and fall.

has a mild and pleasant taste with no odor; cook before eating.

tip: boletes are mushrooms that grow on the ground and have a sponge-like surface on the underside of the cap - tiny pores, rather than gills. There are no deadly-poisonous boletes, though some varieties can cause nausea/vomiting. An unknown bolete is safe if it does not bruise blue after being cut, is not red on the underside of the cap, and does not taste foul.
Small amounts should be consumed when testing an unfamiliar bolete.

king bolete

 


larch bolete
lion's mane
lobster mushroom
meadow mushroom
mica cap


Oyster mushroom平菇(学名:Pleurotus ostreatus;又名侧耳、糙皮侧耳、蚝菇、黑牡丹菇)是担子菌门下伞菌目侧耳科一种类,是种相当常见的灰色食用菇。最早的种植纪录是第一次世界大战时期为自救的德国,但现时已在全球广泛作商业种植,以提供食物。平菇的外形跟以同样理由种植的Pleurotus eryngii很相似。另外,在工业上平菇也有用于真菌修复。

虽然平菇是一种在野生随处可见的菇种,在商业种植会用麦杆或其他媒介来培植。它的味道甜中带苦,是因为含有苯甲醛。
平菇的学名是Pleurotus ostreatus。Pleurotus就是指“向侧面”的意思,这是因平菇的菌柄是向侧面生的。而ostreatus就是指平菇的外形及味道相像的蚝,所以平菇亦有蚝菇之称。

平菇的菌盖幼滑,呈长方形及一般按年龄突出。直径约50-200毫米。有白色、褐色及蓝灰色。边缘位置同样幼滑呈波浪形。

菌肉一般都是白色,有厚有薄。

菌褶延生,通常是白色。菌柄短少,一般是水平及从木中伸出。

孢子印在黑纸上是白色至淡紫色的。

平菇生长在已死去的木头上。虽然不同的菌株在不同的温度下结子实,但所有的菌株结子实时都需要潮湿的环境。

平菇是少数已知的肉食菇类,其菌丝体能杀死及消化线虫动物门生物,并以此吸取氮化物维生。根据位于澳大利亚墨尔本的莫纳殊大学一位科学家Michelle Dunstone的研究,她发现平菇的菌丝体会分泌一种名为“pleurotolysin”的蛋白质,这种蛋白质会形成一个甜甜圈形状的“纳米级电锯”,在被入侵生物的细胞表皮钻开一个洞,以杀死细胞或在细胞内注入其他物质.

cap up to 8cm wide, fanlike convex shape, smooth, moist, cream to light brown.

flesh is off-white, firm.

stem usually not present, otherwise white, dry, with white hairs at base.

usually grows in large overlapping custers, on trees, logs and stumps of hardwoods and conifers, never on the ground.

appears in spring and fall.

has a mild, pleasant taste and fragrant fruity odor; cook before eating.

tip: the oyster mushroom has several looka-alikes that are indistinguishable in the field, all are edible as long as they grow on trees (avoid those growing on dead wood/logs/stumps).

a potentially poisonous look-alike is the Angel wings mushroom (Pleurocybella porrigens), which is similar in appearance but is white rather than cream, has thinner flesh, no odor, and grows on dead wood (logs/stumps) rather than trees.

oyster mushroom

 

Rosy gomphidius(Gomphidius Subroseus)

亚红铆钉菇菌褶延生,宽,白色至烟灰色,菌柄长3-7.5cm,粗0.5-1.5cm,近圆柱形,向基部稍细,白色,靠柄之下部黄色至深黄色。夏秋季在针叶林地上单生或散生。

形态特征 子实体一般小。菌盖直径3-6cm,初期半球形,后期近平展或边缘向上,粉红至浅红色,表面粘,光滑。菌肉较厚,硬,白色。菌褶延生,宽,白色至烟灰色。菌柄长3-7.5cm,粗0.5-1.5cm,近圆柱形,向基部稍细,白色,靠柄之下部黄色至深黄色。靠柄之上部有菌环,粘,较薄,往往散落有孢子后呈黑褐色。孢子14-20μm×5-8(10)μm,光滑,卵圆形至椭圆形。孢子印黑色。褶侧囊体近圆柱形,114-122μm×10-17.8μm。

生态习性 夏秋季在针叶林地上单生或散生。

可食用,味道好。与松树等针叶树形成菌根。

cap is up to 5cm wide, convex shaped, smooth and sticky, pink to red in color.

older specimens have a planar cap with upturned margins.

flesh is white and firm.

gills are white, graying in age, and descend onto the stem.

stem is white above and below the ring with a distinct bright yellow area towards the tapering base.

partial veil is thin, leaving a colorless ring on the stem that soon turns black.

grows singly or abundantly in areas with conifers.

appears in the spring, summer and fall.

has a pleasant taste with no odor; remove the cap's skin and cook before eating.

an edible lookalike is Gomphidious nigricans, which grows under eastern white pine, has a pinkish cap and a stem that turns black when handled.

rosy comphidius

 

Scaly hedgehog,翘鳞肉齿菌,又称獐子菌、仲帽、獐头菌。

子实体中等至大型。菌盖初期突起,后扁平,中部脐状或下凹,有时呈浅漏斗状,浅粉灰色,表面有暗灰色到黑褐色大鳞片,鳞片厚,覆瓦状,趋向中央特别大并翘起,呈同心环状排列,菌盖直径6-10cm。菌肉近白色,菌柄中生或稍偏生,粗 0.7-3cm,有时短粗或较细长,上下等粗或基部膨大,可达4cm,中实、平滑、淡白色,后期变淡褐色。刺锥形,延生,长可达1-1.5cm,初期灰白色。后变浓褐色。

生于高山针叶林中地上,尤以云杉,冷杉林中生长多。

可食用。好吃,新鲜时味道很好,菌肉厚,水份少,不生虫,便于收集加工,但老后或雨多浸湿者带苦味。属外生菌根菌。子实休有降低血中胆固醇的作用,并含有较丰富的多糖类物质。

cap is up to up to 30cm wide, convex shaped with a depressed center, brown with raised scales and a dry texture.

flesh is white or tinted brown.

underside of cap has brown spines that descend onto the stem.

stem is smooth and light brown, thickening towards the base.

grows singly or as several in areas with conifers.

appears in sumer and fall.

taste is mildly bitter with no odor; cook before eating.

an edible look-alike is the less-palatable Sarcodon scabrosus, which is similar in appearance but the cap is more reddish with scales that are not raised, and the stem is dark blue/black at its base.

scaly hedgehog

 

Shaggy mane

鸡腿菇(学名:Coprinus comatus),亦作鸡腿蘑菇,在中国北方俗称毛头鬼伞,在旧分类发中与其他品种的鬼伞菇同属鬼伞属(Coprinellus),但在新分类法中被分入Coprinus属。鸡腿菇是一种野生食用菌,于欧洲、亚洲及北美洲都有发现,依地区气候不同,可能在春末、夏季或秋季雨后发出来。鸡腿蘑菇属中高温型菇类,为草腐土生菌。

鸡腿菇成熟后会变成墨汁,采摘后也会在几小时内变成墨汁。有些和鸡腿菇同一科的菇类和酒精饮品一起食用会中毒。

鸡腿菇有药用功效,所以有不少标榜健康的菜单亦有以鸡腿菇或其他野菌类制作佳馔。鸡腿菇可以人工种植,但因为保存期限短,很难在市场上贩卖。鸡腿菇菌丝的生长温度范围10-35 °C,以20-30 °C为最适合。而子实体的发育温度8-30 °C,最适16-22 °C。


全株白色。蕈柄易与蕈伞分离,中空,内有一条丝。有时有蕈环。蕈伞长卵形,表面有褐色鳞片。蕈折密集离生。孢子黑色。常生长于有扰动的木屑或泥土地上。蕈伞和蕈折成熟后溶解成墨汁。

cap is up to 15cm wide, narrow, cylidrical, white, and covered in thin, shaggy red/brown scales.

older specimens have a cap that is bell-shaped.

flesh is white, soft.

gills are narrowly attached to the stem and white/grey when young.

the flesh and gills of older specimens liquefies into a black inky mass.

partial veil leaves an inferior, possibly moveable ring on the white stem.

grows scattered or grouped together in grassy areas covering decomposing wood.

appears in early spring and late fall.

has a pleasant taste with no odor; cook before eating.

an edible look-alike is Coprinus sterquilinus, which similar in appearance but smaller, with fewer scales and growing on dung.

tip: collect younger specimens and/or remove blackening areas which have a more bitter taste.

tip: cooking with water shortly after collecting helps to prevent the dish from turning into a black inky mess.

Coprinus comatus


Slimy spike cap

cap is up to 10cm wide, broadly convex shaped, smooth and sticky/slimy, cinnamon brown, possibly tinted purple/grey.
older specimens have a planar cap with upturned margins.
flesh is white and soft.
gills are white, graying in age, and descend onto the stem.
stem is white above and below the ring, with a distinct bright yellow area towards the tapering base.
partial veil is thin, leaving a superior ring on the stem that soon turns black.
grows abundantly in areas with conifers.
appears in the summer and fall.
has a pleasant taste with a mild odor; remove the cap's skin and cook before eating.

800px Gomphidius glutinosus 131007a

Yellow swamp russula

亮黄红菇(学名:Russula claroflava),俗称黄沼泽红菇(yellow swamp russula)或黄沼泽脆褶(yellow swamp brittlegill),是一种红菇属真菌,广泛分布于欧洲和北美的桦树和杨树下。这种真菌有着一个黄色的菌盖,白色的菌褶和菌柄,而当碰伤时菌肉会变成灰色。这种真菌拥有淡淡的味道,并且被视为一种美食。
亮黄红菇最早是由威廉·拜沃特·格罗夫(William Bywater Grove)于1888年描述的。其学名源自拉丁文词汇“clarus”和“flava”,“clarus”意思是 “明亮”或“清楚”,而“flava”意思则是“浅黄色”。结合起来就是“明亮的浅黄色”,即“亮黄”。
亮黄红菇体形中等,其菌盖呈蛋黄色,直径为4–10厘米(1.5–4英寸)。其菌盖亦略带粘性,且这种真菌经常在树下生长,因此树叶等杂物不时会粘在其菌盖上。在成熟的亮黄红菇标本中,菌盖中央都会凹陷,而剩余部分则会皱起,并且呈半脱皮状。其菌柄呈白色,高度为4–10厘米(1.5–4英寸),厚1–2厘米,并且相当坚固。其菌褶呈苍白赭色。这种真菌的所有部分经碰伤或老化后都会变成深灰色。这种真菌的气味为果香。孢子印呈浅赭色,而椭圆形疣状孢子的大小则约为9.5 x 8微米。可供食用的,但气味刺鼻的黄白红菇则类似这种真菌,但有着一个较为暗淡的黄色菌盖。
亮黄红菇主要于夏季和秋季在欧洲和北美出现,并且经常在桦树和杨树下生长。这种真菌的适居生境为潮湿或附近有池塘及湖泊的地方,且荒地和沼泽也是这种真菌的适居地。有时候,这种真菌的也会在干燥的地方出现。

cap is up to 10cm wide, convex, smooth, bright/lemon yellow, dry.

older specimens have a planar cap with a depressed center with small radiating furrow-lines at the cap-edges.

flesh is white, soft, bruising grey.

gills are yellow and directly attached to the stem.

stem is dry, white, non-tapering, slowly bruising to grey/black.

grows singly or as several under birch and mixed woods.

appears in summer and fall.

has a mild taste with no odor; cook before eating.

yellow swamp russula

 

Yellow-gilled russula

cap is up to 7cm wide, convex, smooth, bright yellow, sticky to the touch.

older specimens have a planar cap with a depressed center with small radiating furrow-lines at the cap-edges.
gills are brittle, yellow and attached directly to the stem.
flesh is white, fragile, does not change color when bruised.
stem is smooth, dry, white, non-tapering, not bruising grey.
grows in groups or scattered under paper birch and other hardwoods.
appears in summer and fall.
has a mild taste with an apricot-like odor; cook before eating. 

yellow grilled russula

 

 

Reference:

http://northernbushcraft.com/guide.php?ctgy=edible_mushrooms®ion=quebec

http://mushroomobserver.org/species_list/show_species_list/55

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guepinia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fistulina_hepatica

https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/%E7%BE%8A%E8%82%9A%E8%8F%8C

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B9%8C%E9%B8%A1%E6%B2%B9%E8%8F%8C

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%BA%AE%E9%BB%83%E7%B4%85%E8%8F%87

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomphidius_glutinosus

https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-cn/%E9%87%8E%E8%98%91%E8%8F%87

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chanterelle

http://baike.baidu.com/view/124306.htm

 https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%A2%A8%E6%B1%81%E9%AC%BC%E5%82%98

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomphidius_subroseus

http://baike.baidu.com/view/575371.htm

 

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